Main Battle Tank Russia
The T-90S is an enhanced version of the Russian-made T-90 Main Battle Tank (MBT) to meet the operational requirements of countries in Asia. The T-90S is used by India. The T-90S is the latest development in the T-series of Russian tanks and represents an increase in firepower, mobility, and protection. It is manufactured by the Russian Company Uralvagonzavod based in Nizhny Tagil. The T-90S is in service with the Russian and Indian Army under the name of Bhishma. In February 2001, the Indian Army signed a contract for 310 T-90S main battle tank tanks. It's also the export version of the standard main battle tank T-90. In July 2017, Russian tank manufacturer UralVagonZavod announced in its annual report that it had secured an order from Vietnam for T-90S main battle tanks. Also in July 2017, it was announced that Iraq has purchased 73 main battle tanks (MBTs) from the Russian Company Uralvagonzavod including T-90S MBTs and T-90SK command post for the tank battalion unit. In February 2022, Iraq has announced a plan to acquire more T-90S. According to information published on the Internet, Russia has deployed the T-90S for combat operations in Russia - Ukraine War 2022.
- T-90SK: Command post version of T-90S with additional radio communication antennas.
- T-90S Bhishma: Indian version of the T-90S.
The main armament of the T-90S MBT includes one 125 mm 2A46M smoothbore gun, stabilized in two axes and fitted with a thermal sleeve. The gun tube can be replaced without dismantling inside the turret. The gun's automatic loader will feed both ordnance and missiles offering a high rate of fire (up to 7 to 8 rounds per minute). The T-90S is also able to fire the 9M119 Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile system with a range from 100 m to 4,400 m. It can be used to destroy tanks fitted with explosive reactive armor (ERA), as well as low-flying air targets such as helicopters, at a range of up to 5 km. The cannon can fire both 9M119 or 9M119M missiles which have semi-automatic laser beam riding guidance and a hollow charge warhead. Missile's weight is 23.4 kg. A coaxial machine 7.62 mm PKT is mounted to the right side of the main armament and a 12.7mm air defense machine gun is fitted to the top of the turret.
|Design and protection|
The layout of the T-90S MBT is similar to the standard T-90 MBT, with the driver's compartment at the front, a two-man turret in the center, and the engine compartment at the rear. The T-90S tank is protected by both conventional armor-plating and the latest generation Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armor (ERA). The T-90S is fitted with the Shtora-1 defensive aids suite which is produced by Electronintorg of Russia. This system includes an infrared jammer, a laser warning system with four laser warning receivers, a grenade discharging system that produces an aerosol screen, and a computerized control system.
|The T-90S MBT is motorized with a V-92S2 V-12 diesel developing 1,000 hp, coupled to a manual transmission with seven forward and one reverse gear. The tank can run at a maximum road speed of 60 km/h with a maximum cursing range of 550 km. It can run at a maximum speed of 35 to 40 km/h in all-terrain conditions. A turbocharged version of the diesel engine is also available which gives a further increase in power. The suspension is of the torsion bar type and either side consists of six dual rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear, idler at the front, and three track return rollers. Hydraulic shock absorbers are provided at the first, second, and sixth road wheel stations. It can cross a trench of 2.8 m and climb a vertical obstacle of 0.85 m. It has a fording depth of 1.5m without preparation.|
|Standard equipment on the T-90S MBT includes the latest generation Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armor which provides a high level of protection against both kinetic and chemical energy attacks, an NBC system, fire detection and suppression system, front-mounted dozer/blade, long-range fuel tanks, and the TshU1-7Shtora-1 countermeasures system. The T-90S is fitted with a French Thales Optronics second-generation thermal camera that has been installed with the commander and gunner both being provided with a screen. The day/night sighting system is called the ESSA (thermal vision and sighting system) and has been developed by Thales, Uralvagonzavod, and the Peleng Joint Stock Company of Belarus. The tank is provided with a snorkel for deep fording and can ford 5m of water with equipment that can be deployed in 20 minutes.|
|One 125 mm 2A46M gun, one 7.62 mm PKTM machine gun, and one 12.7 mm NSVT machine gun||Steel armor and Kontakt-5 ERA which provides protection against APFSDS and HEAT-type projectiles|
|Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, India, Iraq, Russia, Syria, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Vietnam, and Yemen.||46,500 kg|
|Russia||60 km/h maximum road speed|
|NRBC protection system, night vision equipment, computerized firing control system, laser warning system, laser range system, fire detection and suppression system, dozer blade, and deep fording kit.||550 km|
|3||Length: 6.86 m (hull); Width: 3.37 m; Height: 2.22 m|
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