Air defense surface-to-ground missile system - United States
The MIM-104 Patriot is an air defense missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations. Patriot uses an advanced aerial interceptor missile and high-performance radar systems. The Patriot system is modular and highly mobile. A battery-sized element can be emplaced in less than 1 hour. Patriot systems have been sold to Taiwan, Egypt, Germany, Greece, Israel, Japan, Kuwait, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Spain. Poland hosts a battery of Patriot launchers in Morag since 24 May 2010. The system will be integrated into the Polish air defense system until 2012. The Republic of Korea is also in the process of purchasing several second-hand Patriot systems after North Korea test-launched ballistic missiles to the Sea of Japan and proceeded with underground nuclear testing in 2006. The role of the PATRIOT is to defend against airborne threats as part of integrated air and missile defense system. Notable characteristics of the PATRIOT system include a short response time, the ability to engage multiple targets simultaneously, good ground mobility, and the ability to resist electronic jamming. The first PATRIOT air defense systems were deployed by U.S. Forces in the mid-1980s. During the first Gulf War, it was used to defend against the Iraqi Scud missile threat. The PATRIOT system has evolved over the years as the threat has changed and technology has advanced. The current PATRIOT variants are equipped with advanced interceptor missiles and high-performance radar systems. PATRIOT stands for “Phased Array Tracking Radar to Intercept on Target”. In December 2020, the United States has confirmed the purchase of Patriot missile systems by Morocco. On May 21, 2022, the United States approved a new aid of $40 billion to Ukraine with the military assistance of $20 billion including the delivery of Patriot air defense systems and long-range artillery weapons. In May 2022, Poland announced the purchase of six more Patriot batteries. On October 14, 2022, the Polish Minister of Defense announced that Poland is ready to integrate the Patriot MIM-104 PAC-3 within its armed forces. On December 13, 2022, the American TV News Channel CNN announced that the United States plans to supply Ukraine with Patriot air defense missile systems. On December 21, several American newspapers announced that the United States will send $1.8 billion in military aid to Ukraine in a massive package including Patriot air defense systems. On January 5, 2023, Germany also announced the delivery of one Patriot battery to Ukraine. On January 12, 2023, Germany officially confirmed the delivery to Ukraine of one Patriot battery air defense missile system. On January 17, 2023, the Netherlands announced a plan to join the United States and Germany with the delivery to Ukraine of one Patriot air defense missile system from its military inventory.
Patriot MIM-104 main variants:
- MIM-104A: The standard Patriot missile (MIM-104) was the first type fielded and contained an analog fuze. This fuze was replaced by a digital version with the fielding of the MIM-104A.
- MIM-104B (PAC-1): To counter the long-range ECM threat the MIM-104B, or standoff jammer countermeasures (SOJC) missile, was fielded in the late 1980s. The guidance and navigation hardware were modified to allow the SOJC missile to fly a lofted trajectory to the jamming source and seek out the strongest emitter during the terminal phase of missile flight. The SOJC missile can fly three times longer than the standard missile without the uplink/downlink. Missile Canister. The SOJC missile retains the same performance against ABT and TBM as the standard missile
- MIM-104C (PAC-2): The Patriot Advanced Capabilities 2 (PAC-2) missile, MIM-104C, was fielded during Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm to counter the advanced TBM threat. A new warhead and dual-mode fuze were added to the missile. The new warhead contains a more powerful explosive and larger fragments designed to place sufficient kinetic energy on the warhead section of threat TBMs (Tactical Ballistic Missiles) to achieve a Warhead Kill. The dual-mode fuze allows the PAC-2 missile to retain ABT performance and also optimize performance against TBM. The system software based on the mission selected for the missile sets the fuze mode.
- MIM-104D (PAC-2-GEM): The Guidance Enhancement Missile (GEM) is an improved PAC-2 missile. A Low Noise Front End (LNFE) and improved fuze have increased lethality and expanded TBM engagement volume.
- MIM-104F (PAC-3): The Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC-3) missile is to be incorporated into the Patriot air defense system. It will provide defense against tactical ballistic missiles, advanced cruise missiles, and other air-breathing threats in the presence of electronic countermeasures and rough terrain. The PAC-3 missile achieves its hit-to-kill capability through the combination of an extremely accurate seeker coupled with an exceptionally rapid airframe response. The missile also utilizes a lethality enhancer that is designed to increase its performance against airbreathing threats. There are 16 PAC-3 missiles per Patriot launcher (versus four PAC-2 missiles per launcher) and eight launchers per Patriot battery.
- Patriot MSE: The PAC-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (MSE) is an evolution of the battle-proven PAC-3 Missile. The hit-to-kill PAC-3 MSE provides performance enhancements that counter evolving threat advancements. The enhancements ensure the PAC-3 Missile Segment of the PATRIOT Air Defense System is capable of engaging new and evolving threats. The hit-to-kill PAC-3 Missile is the world’s most advanced, and capable theater air defense missile and defender against the entire threat to the PATRIOT Air Defense System: Tactical Ballistic Missiles (TBMs) carrying weapons of mass destruction, evolving cruise missiles, and aircraft.
The system's missiles are transported on and launched from the M901 Launching Station, which can carry up to four PAC-2 missiles or up to sixteen PAC-3 missiles.. Each launcher has four missiles. Each container-launcher box is 6.1 m long, 1.09 m wide, and 0.99 m high. Weight empty is 794 kg and loaded 1,696 kg.
The Patriot missile is equipped with a track-via-missile (TVM) guidance system. Midcourse correction commands are transmitted to the guidance system from the mobile engagement control center. The target acquisition system in the missile acquires the target in the terminal phase of flight and transmits the data using the TVM downlink via the ground radar to the engagement control station for final course correction calculations. The course correction commands are transmitted to the missile via the missile track command uplink. The high-explosive 90kg warhead is situated behind the terminal guidance section. The range of the missile is 70 km and the maximum altitude is greater than 24 km. The minimum flight time is the time to arm the missile, which is less than nine seconds, and the maximum flight time is less than three and a half minutes.
The latest generation of Patriot launchers uses the PAC-3 missile produced by the Company Lockheed Martin. The PAC-3 Missile is a high-velocity interceptor that defeats incoming targets by direct, body-to-body impact. PAC-3 Missiles, when deployed in a Patriot battery, will significantly increase the Patriot system's firepower, since 16 PAC-3s load out on a Patriot launcher, compared with four of the legacy Patriot PAC-2 missiles. One hundred percent effective in Operation Iraqi Freedom, PAC-3 Missiles are now deployed with U.S. and allied forces.
|The Patriot missile container is mounted on M860 semi-trailers, which are towed by M983 HEMTTs. The Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HEMTT) provides transport capabilities for the re-supply of combat vehicles and weapons systems. There are five basic configurations of the HEMTT series trucks: M977 cargo truck with Material Handling Crane (MHC), M978 2500 gallon fuel tanker, M984 wrecker, M983 tractor and M985 cargo truck with MHC. The M983 truck uses an 8x8 chassis and is powered by a Detroit Diesel, MUI, 8V-92TA, V-8 2-stroke liter diesel developing 445 hp at 2,100 rpm. The M860 semi-trailer is towed by the M983 HEMTT truck, the missiles containers are mounted on the back side of the trailer. The M860 trailer is a two-axle trailer with turntable steering on which the turntable steering has an automatic locking feature to aid in reversing operations.|
|Command and Control Vehicles|
|The Patriot system has four major operational functions: communications, command and control, radar surveillance, and missile guidance. The four functions combine to provide a coordinated, secure, integrated, mobile air defense system. |
A battery has six major components: a power plant, radar set, an engagement control station, launcher stations, the antenna mast group, and the interceptors (missiles) themselves.
- The Radar Set provides detection and tracking of targets as well as fire control. The phased array radar helps guide interceptors to their intended targets and is resistant to jamming.
- The Engagement Control Station calculates trajectories for interceptors and controls the launching sequence. As such, it communicates with the launcher stations and other PATRIOT batteries. It is the only manned station in a PATRIOT fire unit.
- The Launcher Stations transport and protect the interceptors (missiles) and provide the platform for the physical launch of the missile.
- The Antenna Mast Group is the main communications backbone for the Patriot unit.
- The Interceptor Missiles: PAC-2 is a proximity fusing missile, whereas PAC-3 has been specifically designed to intercept and destroy missiles by impacting them directly with kinetic energy - “Hit-to-Kill” technology.
The command and control vehicles of Patriot battery is the fire control section, consisting of the AN/MPQ-53 or -65 Radar Set, the AN/MSQ-104 Engagement Control Station (ECS), the OE-349 Antenna Mast Group (AMG), and the EPP-III Electric Power Plant. The radar is mounted on M860 semi-trailers, which are towed by M983 HEMTTs. A Patriot battalion is also equipped with the Information Coordination Central (ICC), a command station designed to coordinate the launches of a battalion and uplink Patriot to the JTIDS or MIDS network. The missile is reloaded by M985E1 truck with a crane on the back.
|M901 Launcher unit is the launching station (launcher unit) for the MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air defense missile system. It is used to transport, aim and launch the missile. The M901 launching station is equipped with 4 Patriot or Patriot PAC-2 sealed canisters.|
|Radar AN/MPQ-53 is the search and detection, target track and illumination radar and missile commander for the surface-to-air defense missile system Patriot MIM-104. The AN/MPQ-53/65 Radar Set is a passive electronically scanned array radar equipped with IFF, electronic counter-countermeasure (ECCM), and track-via-missile (TVM) guidance subsystems.|
|AN/MSQ-104 Control Station is the command and control unit of the entire Patriot system. The ECS consists of a shelter mounted on the chassis of an M927 5-Ton Cargo Truck or on the chassis of a Light Medium Tactical Vehicle (LMTV) cargo truck. The MSQ-104 has a crew of 3.|
|Once the PATRIOT missile is launched, it will be tracked by the phased array radar set. As the interceptor missile approaches the target, its active seeker will steer the missile to the target. A PAC-2 Patriot missile will detonate in the vicinity of the threat missile whereas a PAC-3 will seek to impact the warhead of the threat ballistic missile.|
|Long-range, all-altitude, all-weather air defense system.||900 kg|
|Four Patriot missiles||5.8 m|
|Country users||Range Missile|
|Germany, Greece, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Netherlands, Poland, Qatar, Romania Saudi Arabia, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, and the United States.||70 km|
|Head Missile Weight||Guidance system|
|90 kg||Passive electronically scanned array radar equipped with IFF, electronic counter-countermeasure (ECCM), and track-via-missile (TVM) guidance subsystems.|
|M248 Composition B HE blast/fragmentation with two layers of pre-formed fragments and Octol 75/25 HE blast/fragmentation||AN/MPQ-53 or -65 Radar Set, the AN/MSQ-104 Engagement Control Station (ECS), the OE-349 Antenna Mast Group (AMG), and the EPP-III Electric Power Plant.|
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