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Ukrainian soldiers destroy crucial Russian Leer-2 and Tirade electronic warfare systems

According to a video published by the Command of the Special Operations Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine on July 25, 2023, Ukrainian Special Operations Forces (SSO) tracked 9 enemy targets, including two crucial Russian electronic warfare systems, one Tirade jamming system, and one Leer-2 mobile electronic warfare system.
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Ukrainian soldiers destroy crucial Russian Leer-2 and Tirade electronic warfare systems (Picture sources: Ukraine Command of the Special Operations Forces, Russian MoD and brokly990/Twitter)

According to information provided by the SSO's press service, this accomplishment was facilitated through aerial reconnaissance conducted by one of the unit's specialized teams. After gathering intelligence on the enemy's positions, SSO operatives guided and adjusted the fire from the Ukrainian Defense Forces, resulting in precise strikes on the identified targets. SSO operatives acknowledged the cooperation with reconnaissance units and FPV-drone operators. The combined forces executed their missions effectively, targeting Russian assets and also disabling their surveillance equipment.

The destruction included the two electronic warfare systems, which are known to have a significant role in the Russian Forces' radio-electronic warfare capabilities, as well as artillery emplacements and armored vehicles.

Electronic warfare (EW) is a crucial aspect of modern conflicts, including the ongoing Ukrainian war. It centers around exploiting the electromagnetic spectrum to gain an advantage over adversaries by disrupting their communications, command and control systems, and intelligence-gathering capabilities. Within the context of the war, electronic warfare carries several significant implications.

One major impact of electronic warfare is the disruption of communication and intelligence. By gaining control over the electromagnetic spectrum, parties involved in the conflict can interfere with enemy communications, including radio transmissions and radar signals. This disruption hampers the flow of crucial information, making it harder for opposing forces to coordinate and respond effectively.

Furthermore, electronic warfare enables the deployment of electronic jamming systems, which interfere with enemy radars, sensors, and other electronic devices. By doing so, the effectiveness of the enemy's targeting systems is limited, making it more challenging for them to engage in precision strikes or target critical infrastructure.

In addition to offensive actions, electronic warfare also plays a role in protecting friendly assets. By deploying countermeasures and electronic defense systems, armed forces can safeguard their own communication networks and equipment against enemy electronic attacks.

Moreover, advanced electronic warfare capabilities provide valuable intelligence on enemy movements, communication patterns, and electronic signatures. Analyzing this data aids in understanding adversary strategies and planning appropriate counteractions.

Beyond the technical aspects, electronic warfare also has a psychological impact. Successful operations can create confusion and disarray among enemy forces, affecting their morale and decision-making processes.

Finally, electronic warfare introduces an unconventional dimension to the conflict. Cyber operations and electronic attacks are combined with traditional military tactics, making it more challenging for the enemy to respond effectively.

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A Russian Leer-2 mobile electronic warfare system during an exhibition of the Russian Airborne Troops in 2020. (Picture source: brokly990/Twitter)

The Leer-2, also known as Tigr-M MKTK REI PP, or VPK-233114, is a mobile electronic warfare system based on the Tigr-M 4x4 armored vehicle. It has been in service with the Russian ground forces and the Russian Airborne Forces since 2017.

The Leer-2 is a mobile electronic warfare complex adopted by the RF Armed Forces in 2017 and continues to be operational. It was developed and manufactured by Military Industrial Company and VNII Etalon and is installed on the chassis of the armored car "Tigr-M." The vehicle can accommodate a crew of two operators and four soldiers, with dimensions measuring 5.7 meters in length, 2.3 meters in width, and 2.3 meters in height. The Leer-2 is designed to provide protection against small arms fire and has a maximum speed of 140 km/h on the highway. It has an operational range of 400 km and weighs 7,800 kg.

The primary functions of the Leer-2 include conducting radio reconnaissance to identify sources of radio emissions, jamming and suppressing enemy electronic equipment, including cellular phone systems. It is also capable of simulating the operation of various radio-electronic systems (RES) and evaluating the electromagnetic environment during combat training exercises. Its ability to operate in close proximity to the enemy's forward edge enhances its effectiveness. After completing its combat mission, the system promptly leaves the area of operation. Additionally, it can be utilized in field tests to create realistic tactical electronic scenarios.

The Leer-2 is equipped with electronic warfare capabilities, covering a frequency range for radio emission direction finding from 30 to 18000 MHz, electronic suppression ranges from 30 to 2,200 MHz, and a technical analysis range of radio signals from 0.1 to 18,000 MHz. It can scan frequencies at a speed of 2,000 MHz/s and generate noise with an energy potential of up to 500W. The Leer-2 provides precise direction finding with an error margin of no more than 5 degrees. Its service life spans a minimum of 10 years, making it a valuable asset in modern military operations.

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A Tirade jamming system in a Tirada-2 variant (Picture source: Russian MoD)

The Tirade jamming system, also referred to as Tirada-2 or Tirada-2S, is a mobile radio electronic suppression complex developed by Russia. Its purpose is to interfere with enemy communication satellites through electronic means. The project began in 2001 and has since undergone various tests and improvements. It is important to note that the Tirade system can also be designated under the names "Triade" or "Triad" online.

The main objective of the Tirade system is to disrupt the functioning of communication satellites from the ground. By utilizing electronic suppression techniques, it emits strong electronic signals that interfere with the radio frequency communications of satellites, potentially causing them to malfunction or lose their ability to transmit and receive data effectively.

The Tirade jamming system is highly mobile, enabling its deployment in different locations, and it operates at the operational-tactical level, making it suitable for specific combat situations to counter enemy communications effectively. The system is managed and controlled by trained specialist operators.

The Tirade-2C version of the system is designed to target foreign communication satellites, demonstrating Russia's efforts to advance its electronic warfare capabilities. 

Over time, the Tirade system has undergone testing, with successful tests reported, including battle tests in the Donbas region against the Ukrainian army.

The development of the Tirade system began in the early 2000s and was included in Russia's state arms program until 2027, indicating a significant investment in research and development.

It is important to note that the Tirade jamming system is considered highly classified, and as a result, there is limited available data or public information regarding its specific technical details, capabilities, and operational deployment. The details about its full extent and effectiveness remain closely guarded by the Russian military and authorities. Due to its classified nature, the exact scope and impact of the Tirade system on communication satellites and other electronic devices may not be publicly disclosed. As with many military electronic warfare projects, the level of secrecy surrounding Tirade's development and implementation is in line with standard security protocols.

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