Main Battle Tank - Russia
The T-90A is a Russian-made main battle tank and the successor of the standard T-90. T-90As entered service in 2005, replacing the aging T-72s and T-80s and forming the backbone of Russian ground forces. The T-90A has been developed on the basis of thorough investigation and interpretation of tactics and strategy of using tanks in specific present-day combat conditions, considering long army service experience of the T-72 tanks in many countries of the world and taking into account the results of the perennial arduous field tests. The advanced design solutions and cutting-edge technologies implemented in the T-90A MBT have opened up opportunities for the military to plan effective operations, enhanced reliability and agility of tanks and made it possible to improve their operational and performance characteristics by a factor of 1.5. compared with T-72S. Though new units and systems, which improve T-90A combat and operational characteristics, have been incorporated, the tank's overall dimensions remain as those of the T-72C tank. Only it has become heavier by 2 tons, but the tank is still lighter by 9 t than French MBT Leclerc by 16 t than American Abrams M1A2 Abrams and German Leopard-2A6.
- T-90: the standard version
- T-90AK: command version with additional antenna's on the top of the turret and sometimes APU at the rear of the chassis.
The main armament of the T-90A MBT consists of one 125mm 2A46M-5 smoothbore gun which fires conventional natures of separate loading ammunition (projectile and charge) including HE-FRAG (high-explosive fragmentation) and APFSDS-T (Armour Piercing Fin Stabilised Discarding Sabot - Tracer). It can also fire a 9M119M laser-guided anti-tank projectile fitted with a tandem HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) warhead out to a maximum range of 5,000 m. The T-90A uses an automatic loading system with 22 rounds ready to fire that provides a high rate of fire (up to 7 rounds per minute). A 7.62 mm 6P7K machine gun is mounted coaxially with the main armament and a remote weapon station UDP T05BV-1 is mounted on the turret roof armed with one 12.7 mm NSVT heavy machine gun. This remote weapon station can be laid and fired from within the turret. Mounted on either side of the turret is a bank of six electrically operated 81 mm smoke grenade launchers which are in a new low-angle configuration compared to those fitted to earlier Russian MBTs.
|Design and protection|
The general layout of the T-90A is conventional with the driver at the front, a welded turret (in place of steel) in the middle, and the powerpack at the rear. The T-90A has a crew of three, driver, commander, and gunner. Gunner and commander are seated in the turret with the gunner on the left and the commander on the right. The hull and turret of the T-90A over the forward arc is fitted with the latest generation Kontakt-5 ERA third-generation explosive reactive armor which provides protection against APFSDS and HEAT-type projectiles. In addition to being fitted to the hull and turret, ERA panels are also fitted on either side of the hull front to provide lateral protection to each side of the driver's compartment. To improve its battlefield survivability the T-90A is fitted with the TShU1-7 Shtora-1 countermeasures system which is also fitted to some models of the T-80UD and T-84 (Ukraine) MBTs. The Shtora-1 is an active defense system that protects the tank against guided missiles, using both the semi-active command to line of sight (SACLOS) guidance, by an IR source that mimics the flare on the back of missiles, as well as laser beam riders and laser-homing weapons. It should be effective against missiles such as the TOW, HOT, AT-4, AT-5, and Sagger (Malyutka). The Russian system also has some capability to counter laser-guided munitions and ATGMs (Such as Hellfire, Kornet etc).
|The T-90A MBT is motorized with the V-92S2 engine fitted with a preheater for use in cold weather, is coupled to a mechanical transmission which consists of a primary reduction gear, two planetary final gearboxes, and two planetary final drives. The engine is fitted with an effective two-stage cleaning system and a temperature warning device. Suspension of T-90A consists on each side of six dual rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear, idler at the front, and three track return rollers. Hydraulic shock-absorbers are provided at the first, second and sixth roadwheel stations. The T-90A can run at a maximum road speed of 60 km/hr with a maximum road cruising range of 500 km. To increase the operational range of the T-90A, two diesel fuel drums can be carried under the hull rear.|
|Standard equipment of T-90A includes NBC protection, fire detection, and suppression system, nose-mounted dozer blade, and a deep fording kit. The T-90A also has a laser warning system and an aerosol-generating system that uses 3D17 grenades of 902A Tucha (Cloud) designation. These are launched from the standard 81 mm launchers on either side of the turret. The TShU1-7 Shtora (which means shutter or blind) consists of an infra-red source, power supply, and control panel. The T-90 has two infra-red sources, one mounted on either side of the 125 mm smoothbore gun. These introduce a spurious signal into the guidance circuitry of the incoming missile through continuously generated coded pulsed infra-red jamming signals. The T-90A is also equipped with a Falcon Eye panoramic commander's sight capable of identifying a tank at a range of up to 5,000 m, a 1V528-2 fire-control computer, a Remeshok identification friend or foe (IFF) system. A snorkel is mounted at the rear of the turret for deep fording and can ford 5 m of water with equipment that can be deployed in 20 minutes.|
|One 125mm cannon, one 7.62mm coaxial machine gun, and one 12,7mm heavy machine gun.||Standard protection against firing of small arms and shell splinters. Kontakt-5 ERA third-generation explosive reactive armor|
|Azerbaijan, Algeria, Russia, Syria, Iraq||46,500 kg|
|NBC protection, fire detection and suppression system, nose-mounted dozer blade and a deep fording kit, night vision, laser warning system, active protection system||500 km|
|3||Length: 9.53 m; Width: 3.78 m; Height: 2.19 m|
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