The S-300 PT is a long-range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz. The S-300 PT is intended to defeat current and future air targets in all conditions of their combat employment under intensive ECM and multiple-threat environments, such as government precincts, industrial facilities, command posts and headquarters, military bases, strategic and tactical airfields and nuclear sites. The S-300 PT system was first deployed by the Soviet Union in 1979, designed for the air defense of large industrial and administrative facilities, military bases, and control of airspace against enemy strike aircraft. The project-managing developer of the S-300 is Russian Almaz corporation which is currently a part of "Almaz-Antei" Air Defense Concern. S-300 uses missiles developed by MKB "Fakel" design bureau. The S-300 PT is also capable of destroying ballistic missile targets and is regarded as one of the most potent anti-aircraft missile systems currently fielded. Its radars have the ability to simultaneously track up to 100 targets while engaging up to 12. S-300 deployment time is five minutes. The S-300 PT missiles are sealed rounds and require no maintenance over their lifetime. A typical battery would be equipped with three 5P85 TELs, each with four SAMs, or double the SAM complement of the S-75/SA-2 it replaced and permitting 2 rounds per launch. The designation of this TEL following a mid-life block upgrade became 5P85-1.
S-300 F : naval version of the S-300 S-300 V : four missiles mounted to an tracked vehicle. S-300 PS : Four missiles mounted to a Maz-543 truck. S-300 PM : Four missiles mounted to a Kraz-260 truck. S-300 PM1: upgraded version of S-300 PM, new missile, and association with a new radar system S-300 PM2 : upgraded version of S-300 PM1, higher range. S-300 PMU : export version of S-300 PS/PM S-300 PMU1 : export version of S-300 PM1 S-300 PMU2 : export version of S-300 PM2
The deployment model of the first generationS-300 PT was based on the existing S-75/SA-2, S-125/SA-3 and S-200/SA-5 systems, with a semi-mobile package of towed trailer-mounted radars and missile Transporter Erector Launchers (TEL). The S-300 PT is a semi-trailer arrangement, with the forward booms splayed when deployed as stabilizers. The S-300 PT carries four missiles, each to an individual containers.
The S-300 PT uses the 5V55 missile. The 5V55 is a family of highly supersonic, surface-to-air missiles used with the S-300 family of high performance, medium-range air defense systems. The 5V55 missile has a radiofrequency based guidance system and a maximum speed of approximately Mach 5.5. The missile 5V55 uses heads with high explosive capacity. The missile 5V55 is deployed and handled in a sealed cylindrical launch tube/canister, with a cold start gas generator used to eject the missile vertically before its motor was initiated.
The trailer of the system S-300 PT is tractor drawn generally by the Russian truck 6x6 KrAZ-260
Command and control vehicles
Two search and acquisition radars were introduced to support the S-300PT, both with 360-degree coverage. The 3D 36D6/ST-68UM/5N59 Tin Shield was used for high and medium-altitude targets and the 2D 76N6 Clam Shell for low altitude low RCS targets. The 36D6 Tin Shield is semi-mobile and towed by a KrAZ-255 or -260 tractor, it can be deployed or stowed in one hour, or two with the mast. The two radars were integrated with a 5N63S mobile command post, carried on an 8x8 MAZ-7910 chassis.