Heavy flame thrower 220mm rocket launcher
The TOS-1 heavy flame thrower system is a 220mm 30-barrel multiple rocket launcher systems that can fire rockets with thermobaric or incendiary warheads. The Russian development of the TOS-1 began in the late 1980s. The heavy flamethrower system TOS-1 was designed and created at the beginning of the 1980s. It represents a complex combat vehicle - launcher, rockets, and transport and loading vehicle. The flame thrower system is mounted on a T-72 tank chassis with an armored cluster of tubes. The enemy is killed by the effect of excessive pressure and high temperature during the explosion of the thermobaric mixtures delivered to the target by rockets. The TOS-1 enters into service with the Russian army at end of 2000. The vehicle has been deployed during the war in Chechnya. The TOS-1 heavy flame thrower system is designed to destroy lightly armored vehicles, set fire and destroy buildings and various constructions, and kill enemy personnel in the open or in shelters. The whole system comprises a BM-1 combat vehicle, two TZM-T transporter-loader vehicles, and 72 NURS unguided rocket projectiles.
- TOS-1A: upgrade version of TOS-1, the launch vehicle is equipped with 24 tubes in place of 30. The minimum range is 400 m and the maximum range is 6,000 m.
The TOS-1 is fitted with a large box including launcher tubes mounted on the center of a modified Russian-made main battle tank T-72 chassis. The chassis mounts a rotary table in assembly with a tipping unit of the rocket launcher, the servo-drives, and a fire control system. The rotary table is electrically powered to move in elevation and direction. The box consists of four layers with a total of 30 x 220 mm rockets tubes, the top layer has six launcher tubes while the three bottom layers have six launcher tubes. The TOS-1 fires 220mm unguided rockets with a minimum range of 600 m and a maximum range of 4,000 m. All the rockets can be fired at the same time in 6 seconds maximum. The zone of ensured destruction from a Buratino salvo is 200 x 400 meters. For its self-protection, the TOS-1 launch vehicle is equipped with two smoke-grenade dischargers mounted on each side at the front of the hull.
|Design and protection|
The TOS-1 is a T-72 Russian-made main battle tank with the turret removed. The driver is at the front in the center of the chassis, and there are two small turrets behind for the other members of the crew. The hull is made of steel which provides protection for the crew against the firing of small arms and shell splinters.
|The TOS-1 is based on the chassis of the Russian-made T-72 main battle tank. The vehicle is motorized with a V-12 multifuel engine V-84-1 developing a power of 840 hp at 2,000 rpm. The TOS-1 launch vehicle has a total weight of 46,000 kg, it can run at a maximum road speed of 60 km/h with a maximum range of 550 km without additional fuel tanks. The suspension consists of each side of six road wheels with the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and rear, and three return rollers supporting the inside of the track only. The upper part of the suspension is protected by rubber plates.|
|The TOS-1 launch vehicle is equipped with a fire control system, ballistic computer, aiming sight and laser range finder 1D14. The right side hatch is fitted with a small infrared light. Two stabilizing jacks are mounted at the rear of the chassis which are deployed on the ground for firing.|
|30 x 220 mm rocket launcher tubes||Protection against the firing of small arms and artillery shell splinters.|
|Russia, Kazakhstan||46,000 kg|
|Russia||60 km/h maximum road speed|
|A fire control system, ballistic computer, laser range finder,||550 km|
|3||Length: 6.86 m; Width: 3.46 m; Height: 2.6 m|
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