TOS-1A BM-1 Soltsepek
Flamethrower 220mm Multiple Incendiary Thermobaric Rocket Launcher - Russia
The TOS-1A is a Russian-made Heavy flamethrower system that is designed for fire support of infantry and tanks, defeating enemy personnel at an unconcealed environment and under the shelter in various kinds of offensive and defensive combat action, and also for incapacitation of light armored transport and vehicles. TOS-1A is used in combat formation of supported forces from unconcealed and concealed positions. The TOS-1A is designed and manufactured by the Russian Defence Company JSC of Uralvagonzavod. The TOS-1A is in service with the Russian armed forces. Heavy flamethrower system TOS-1A is an effective means of thermobaric and volume-detonating ammunition. It can fire unguided 220mm 30-barrel or 24-barrel incendiary rocket and thermobaric weapon mounted on a tracked main battle tank chassis. High-accuracy calculation of firing angle for unguided rockets allocates targets of the impact point on the area in a way that makes it possible to cover a target densely at 6 seconds of full salvo duration at the maximum range of 6,000 m. It allows suppressing enemy active actions for a long time period in considerable areas and 100% destruction of unconcealed enemy personnel at the area of 40,000 square meters. The maximum action effect of unguided missiles in thermobaric equipment could be reached in the mountainous areas because of blast wave mutual apposition and their multiple reflections from surrounding rocks, causing ground taluses, and stone blockages. High accuracy of salvo fire at the target area is provided by target direct sighting (aiming) of the launcher, automatic aiming at a firing range of up to 6,000 m. Ammunition consists of 72 missiles, 24 of which are based at TOS-1A and 48 at reloader vehicle TZM-T. Chassis of tanks of T-80, T-90 type could be used as the basic chassis.
TOS-1A Soltsepek variants
- TOS-1: First version of the vehicle with a total of 30 x 220 mm rockets tubes in place of 24 for the TOS-1A.
The armament of the TOS-1A consists of a block launcher with 24 guide pipes of 220 mm caliber with 3,725 m length for launching unguided missiles. The whole system is mounted on the center of a tracked armored chassis. The missile block launcher unit is fitted on a mobile platform that can be rotated on 360°. Depending on the target, the firing could be conducted by single or double shots from two barrels. Launching control of unguided missiles is fully automatic. The TOS-1A is also equipped with four smoke grenade launchers 902G, two on each side at the front of the hull. The vehicle can also generate smoke through the exhaust of the engine.
The TOS-1A fires an unguided missile via ballistic course after its boosting by a solid-fuelled thrust engine. The projectile nose is equipped with special thermobaric explosives. At missile fuse activation at the target area, central initiation - destructive charge destructs a thin-walled capsule of the projectile nose and dispenses thermobaric explosives at a ground air lair. At the same time inflammation of the explosives occurs simultaneously transferring into an explosion. It produces a powerful blast wave and a high-temperature impulse, which destructs the personnel and vehicles of the enemy.
|Design and protection|
|The TOS-1A is a T-72 Russian-made main battle tank with the turret removed. The driver is at the front in the center of the chassis, and there are two small turrets behind for the other two members of the crew. The hull is made in steel which provides protection for the crew against the firing of small arms 7.62mm caliber at a distance of 620m and shell splinters.|
|The TOS-1A uses BM-1 combat vehicle components based on the chassis of the Russian-made T-72 main battle tank. The vehicle is motorized with a V-12 multi-fuel engine V-84-1 developing a power of 840 hp. at 2,000 rpm. The TOS-1A launch vehicle has a total weight of 46,500 kg, it can run at a maximum road speed of 60 km/h with a maximum cruising range of 550 km without additional fuel tanks. The suspension consists of each side of six road wheels with the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and rear, and three return rollers supporting the inside of the track only. The upper part of the suspension is protected by rubber plates. The latest version of the TOS-1A uses now the chassis of the T-90 MBT (Main Battle Tank).|
|The fire control system of TOS-1A includes a ballistic data computer, sight rangefinder 1D14, control panel, impulse unit roll-pitch sensing device PB2.329.04 and commander's observation device TKN-3A.|
|The fire control system is designed for target searching, measuring the target range, measuring of inclination, launchers different from the horizon, angle detection of the target position, estimation of the super-elevation angles of the rocking unit and side rotation of the launcher considering range, air temperatures, charge, air pressure, speed and direction of the wind at the active and passive areas of the missile flight trajectory.|
|For self-digging, a bulldozer blade is mounted at the front of the vehicle. It allows for significantly shortening the time period equipping of the individual trench. This system is operated by the driver from inside the vehicle. To ensure insure fire accuracy the TOS-1A is equipped with two outriggers and hydraulic locks mounted at the rear of the chassis.|
|24 x 220 mm missile launcher tubes||Protection against small arms and artillery shell splinters.|
|Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Russia and Syria.||46,500 kg|
|Designer Country||Speed vehicle|
|Russia,||60 km/h maximum road speed|
|A fire control system, ballistic computer, laser range finder, CBRN protection system, and night vision for the driver.||550 km|
|3||Length: 7.24 m; Width: 3.58 m; Height: 3.07 m|
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