SA-6 Gainful 2K12 Kub
Short to medium-range air defense missile system - Russia
The SA-6 Gainful (Russian denomination 2K12 Kub) is a Russian-made low-to-medium-altitude surface-to-air missile system. The SA-6 entered into service with the Russian army in 1967 and was unveiled for the first time to the public the same year during a military parade in Moscow Parade. The first known use in action was by Syria and Egypt during the 1973 Middle East war when the 2K12 Kub version proved highly effective against Israeli aircraft during the first few days of the war. Its latest usage was in the Kosovo/Serbian NATO campaign.
SA-6 Gainful 2K12 Kub variants:
- Kub-M1: The 2K12 "Kub" was recommended for modernization work in 1967 with the goal of improving combat characteristics (longer range, improved ECCM, reliability, and reaction time). A modernized variant underwent trial testing in 1972 eventually adopted in 1973 as the "Kub-M1".
- Kub-M2: The Kub-M1 underwent another modernization between 1974 and 1976, against the general combat characteristics of the system that were improved with the "Kub-M3" clearing testing and entering service in 1976.
- Kub-M4 : Kub-M4 used Kub-M3 components that could receive fire control information from the 9A310 transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) of the 9K37 Buk. The advantage of interoperability was an increase in the number of fire control channels and available missiles for each system as well as a faster service entry for Buk system components. The Kub-M4 was adopted into service in 1978 following the completion of state trials.
The SA-6 Gianful 2K12 Kub is armed with three missiles carried on a turntable that can be traversed through a full 360º with the missile elevated on their launchers to a maximum of +85º. When traveling, the turntable is normally traversed to the rear and the missiles are horizontal to reduce the overall height of the vehicle. The initial Kub version of the Kub missile had the following performance characteristics: minimum effective range from 6 to 8,000 m, maximum effective range of 22,000 m, minimum effective engagement height of 100 to 200 m, and maximum effective engagement height of 7,000 m. In the latter system versions, these figures were improved.
|Design and protection|
The chassis of the SA-6 Gainful 2K12 Kub is based on the GM-578 tracked vehicle, which is also used for other military purposes. The transporter vehicle is made of all-welded steel with the crew compartment at the front, missiles on the turntable immediately behind the crew compartment, and the engine at the rear.
|The SA-6 Gainful 2K12 Kub vehicle is motorized with a Model V-6R, 6-cylinder, in-line, water-cooled diesel developing 240 hp at 1,800 rpm. The engine and transmission are at the rear of the hull. The torsion bar suspension system consists of six rubber-tire road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear and the idler at the front. There are no track return rollers. Hydraulic shock absorbers are provided for the first and last road wheel stations.|
|The SA-6 Gainful has a full air filtration and overpressure NBC system and infra-red night vision equipment fitted as standard but the vehicle has no amphibious capability.|
|Each 2K12 battery consists of a number of similar tracked vehicles, one of which carries the 1S91 (SURN vehicle, NATO designation "Straight Flush") 25 kW G/H band radar (range 75 km/47 miles) equipped with a continuous wave illuminator, in addition to an optical sight. The battery usually also includes four triple-missile transporter erector launchers (TELs) and four trucks each carrying three spare missiles and a crane. TEL is based on a GM-578 chassis, while the 1S91 radar vehicle on a GM-568, all developed and produced by the Russian Company Metrowagonmash. Reload missiles are carried on modified ZIL-131 (6 × 6) trucks and are loaded manually onto the launcher by a crane carried on the rear of the loader vehicle. Reloading an SPU takes approximately 10 minutes. The 2K12 can also be used at a regimental level, if used as such it can be accompanied by a number of additional radar systems for extended air search at longer range and lower altitude, to supplement the 1S91 "Straight Flush".|
|Three Kub missiles||100 to 8,000 m|
|Country users||Engagement Range|
|Algeria, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chad, Cuba, Czech Republic, Egypt, Hungary, India, Iran, Libya, Myanmar, Mozambique, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Serbia, Syria, and Vietnam.||4,000 to 23,000 m|
|Missile Launcher Weight||Reload Times|
|630 kg||10 min|
|600 m/sec||Straight Flush target and illumination radar or Long Track radar|
|3||Length: 7.389 m; Width: 3.18 m; Height: 3.45 including missiles|
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