TOR-M2 / TOR-M2E / TOR-M2K SA-15D
Short-range surface-to-air defense missile system - Russia
The Tor-M2 is an upgraded version of the Tor-M1 short-range air defense missile system. The TOR-M2/M2E is designed by the Russian Defense Company Almaz-Antey. The TOR-M2 was presented for the first time to the public during the Moscow Air Show, MAKS in 2007. The latest variant of TOR-M2 features improved fire control radar coverage, and four guidance channels, allowing up to four missiles to be guided at any one time. The Tor-M2E also offers the option of a wheeled chassis, as well as a new digital computer system and all weather optical tracking system. The TOR-M2 / M2E is designed to attack aircraft, helicopters, aerodynamic UAVs, guided missiles and other components of high precision weapons flying at medium, low and extremely low altitudes in adverse air and jamming environment. The Tor-M2 missile system can be mounted on wheeled or tracked chassis. The Tor-M2 doubles the number of targets that can be engaged simultaneously by a single combat vehicle to four. The Armenian Armed Forces have received the latest TOR-M2KM surface-to-air defense missile systems, according to a statement published on December 21, 2019, to the official website of the Armenian Ministry of Defence. In June 2020, the Russian defense industry has announced that the Tor-M2 system has been modified to protect Russian oil and gas infrastructure. On January 2023, Belarus received 6 more TOR-M2K from Russia.
TOR-M2 TOR-M2E SA-15D variants:
There are several modifications of the TOR-M1 system, such as the TOR-M1T (wheeled chassis-mounted systems) and a stationary version.
- 9K330 "Tor": with the 9M330 missile, minimum range of 2 km (1.2 mi), introduced in 1986
- 9K331 "Tor-M": with the 9M331 missile, minimum range of 1.5 km (0.9 mi), was introduced in 1991, with greatly improved missile accuracy and the ability to engage two targets simultaneously
- 9K331M "Tor-M1", "Tor-M1T": with the 9M331 missile, minimum range 1.5 km (0.9 mi)
- 9K332 "Tor-M2", "Tor-MTA", "Tor-MTB", "Tor-MTS": with the 9M331 missile and a new surveillance radar, minimum range 1 km (0.6 mi)
- TOR-M2E: Export version, with a 9А331МE tracked chassis mounting two 9M334 missile modules with four 9М9331 missiles.
- TOR-M2K: with a wheeled 9А331МК chassis developed by the Belarusian company «MZKT» mounting two 9M334 missile modules, each with four 9М9331 missiles.
- TOR-M2KM: modular design (towed variant weight reduced to 15 tons), to accommodate various types of chassis. 9А331МК-1 TELAR mounting two 9M334 missile modules with four 9M9331 missiles.
The missile launcher consists of a box container 9M334 extending down below the level of the hull top, holding two groups of four ready-to-fire missiles in the vertical position. Each missile is in a maintenance-free factory-sealed container-launcher box. The system is reloaded by a dedicated transportation/loader vehicle.
The TOR-M2 can fire missiles 9M331 and 9M332. The design of the missile round is similar conceptually to the much earlier 9K33 / SA-8 Gecko, but with some important differences, both employing a simple tubular airframe design with a solid rocket powerplant. The airframe uses cruciform canard controls for pitch/yaw control, and a revolving sleeve mounts the cruciform tail surfaces. The missile is not roll stabilized. The controls are powered by compressed air. The most significant difference in the control system is the use of nose-mounted thrust vectoring jets, used to pivot the missile to the desired azimuth and pitch angle after its vertical launch. Unlike its predecessor, this missile uses the vertical cold launch technique, with a charge ejecting the round vertically from the transport and launch canister. The proximity fuse transmits antenna is in the missile nose, which also contains the transmitter. The fuse receiver, command link receiver, and autopilot are all clustered in the center section of the missile. The warhead is situated between the guidance section and the motor. A pair of command link and beacon antennas are mounted on the tail. The Tor-M2 can simultaneously engage up to 48 processed targets and ten tracked targets. The TOR-M2 can engage a target at the range from 1,000 to 12,000 m and to an altitude from 10 to 10,000 m.
|The missile system can be mounted to the chassis of a wheeled vehicle MZKT-6922 6 x 6 chassis. The MZKT-6922 is semi-hardened and intended to protect the crew and systems from small arms fire, shrapnel, and spall. The new vehicle weighs 17 tonnes, with a maximum gross weight of 30 tonnes. It is powered by a 420 SHP YaMZ-7513.10 diesel, using an MZKT GMP-400 transmission, delivering a road speed of 80 km/h. The TOR-M2 missile system can also be mounted on tracked chassis 9А331М. The vehicle suspension consists of seven dual rubber-tired road wheels on either side with the idler at the front, a drive sprocket at the rear, and four return rollers.|
|Command and control vehicles|
|A Tor-M2E battery is composed of four 9A331MK TELARs combat vehicles, one 9S737MK Ranzhir-MK mobile command post, two 9T244 transloader vehicles, and one 9V887M2K engineering support vehicle. |
- transporter/loader (TL) 9T244;
- transporting vehicle 9?245;
- maintenance vehicle (battery MV) 9B887M2K;
- maintenance vehicle (regiment MV) 9B887-1M2K;
- group SPTA set vehicle 9F399-1M2K;
- rigging equipment set 9F116;
- training simulator for the combat vehicle operators 9F116;
- maintenance shop MTO-AG3M1.
|Short-range air defense missile system||8 missiles 9M331 or 9M332|
|Country users||Range missile|
|Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, China, Egypt, Russia,||1,500 to 7,000 m|
|Designer Country||Altitude missile|
|Russia||50 - 6,000 m|
|Deployment time||Radar and Command station|
|10-12 targets a minute to 20||M2E PESA engagement radar and Tor M2E search radar mounted to the turret.|
|3||Length, 7,5 m; Width, 3,3 m; Height, 5,1 m|
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Pictures - Video