S-400 Triumf Triumph SA-21 Growler 5P85TE2
Surface-to-Air defense missile system - Russia
The S-400 nicknamed Triumf or Triumph, NATO code-named SA-21 Growler is a long-range surface-to-air missile system produced by Almaz-Antey. The S-400 Triumph is designed to engage, ECM, radar-picket, director area, reconnaissance, strategic and tactical aircraft, tactical and theatre ballistic missiles, medium-range ballistic missiles and other current and future air attack assets at a maximum range of 400 km, and an altitude of up to 30 km. The S-400 Triumph can also destroy Tomahawk cruise missiles and other types of missiles, including precision-guided ones, as well as AWACS aircraft, at ranges of up to 400 km. It can also detect stealth aircraft and other targets at all altitudes of their combat employment and at maximum ranges. This air defense missile system can simultaneously engage 36 targets. The work of development of the S-400 Triumph air defense missile system is a visible embodiment of cooperation among weapons developers. Besides the Almaz Central Design Bureau, these include leading enterprises of the Russian Defence industry, such as the Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau, the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Measuring Instruments, the St- Petersburg Special Machine-Building Design Bureau, and a number of others. A regular S-400 battalion reportedly consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post. The principal distinctions between the S-400 and its predecessor lie in further refinements to the radar and software, and the addition of four new missile types in addition to the legacy 48N6E/48N6E2 used in the S-300PMU2 Favorit. The S-400 entered service with the Russian Armed Forces on April 28, 2007, replacing the S-300 air defense system. As of September 2008, Russia has two systems already in active duty. The Russian Army plans call for the fielding of 18 battalions by 2020 as the backbone of its surface-to-air missile capabilities. Belarus is set to become the first export customer. In April 2009 during the IDEF exhibition in Istanbul Rosoboronexport released that the Turkish government had expressed strong interest in buying of S-400 air defense systems. Reports on Russia signing a contract for sales of S-400 systems to China came in November 2014. In November 2015, the Russian president’s adviser on military-technical cooperation Vladimir Kozhin confirmed these reports. Turkish talks on the delivery of the S-400 systems first came in November 2016. In September 2017, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced that Ankara had signed a contract with Moscow on purchasing the S-400 complexes and made an advance payment. The Head of Russia’s Rostec State Corporation Sergei Chemezov said that the delivery would begin in March 2020. China became the first foreign buyer of these systems and will receive two batches. In July 2018, the Russian press agency TASS has announced that China has received the first batch of Russian-made S-400 Triumf missile systems. On 15 October 2016 during the BRICS Summit, India and Russia signed an Inter-governmental Agreement (IGA) for the supply of five S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems. On 5 October 2018, India and Russia signed a US$5.43 billion deal for five S-400 missile systems. The deliveries are expected to commence in 24 months, by the end of 2020. In January 2018, Russian state media TASS reported that Qatar was in an advanced state of talks to procure S-400 missile systems. The S-400 air defense missile system is combat-proven, in November 2015, the deployment of the S-400 was reported in Syria, along with the contingent of Russian troops and other military hardware in the course of the air campaign conducted by the Russian forces on the side of the Syrian government. In July 2019, Russia has started the delivery of S-400 missile systems to Turkey. In May 2021, Russia has announced the delivery of the S-400 to India. In December 2021, it was published that Algeria has received the Russian S-400 air defense missile system. In February 2022, the President of Belarus announced that Belarus was in talks with Russia to acquire S-400 air defense missile systems. In May 2022, Belarus confirmed the purchase of Russian-made S-400 air defense missile systems. In November 2022, Turkey announced that its S-400 air defense missile systems were fully operational and ready for use. On December 16, 2022, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko announced the deployment of S-400 on Belarus territory. On January 20, 2023, it was reported that Ukrainian Special Forces destroyed a Russian 5P85SM2 TEL (Transporter Erector Launcher) vehicle of the S-400 SAM.
S-400 Triumf Triumph variants:
- S-400 M: export version of S-400
|Missile Launcher Unit|
One S-400 TEL (Transporter Erector Launcher) has four missile containers; each container could house one 48N6E or four 9M96 surface-to-air missiles. The S-400 Triumph can be used with a semi-mobile package of towed trailer-mounted radars and missiles. The S-400 Triumph with the truck 6x6 BAZ-64022 is a semi-trailer arrangement. In the firing position, two hydraulic jacks are lowered on the ground on each side of the trailer to stabilize the vehicle during firing operations.
The current version of the S-400 is able to fire four different types of missiles including the 9M96E with a range of 40 km, 9M96E2 with a range of 120 km, 48N6 with a range of 250 km, and the 40N6E with a range of 400 km. The S-400 Triumph can also use the 48N6E missile of the S-300 PMU-1 system and the 48N6E2 missiles of the S-300 PMU-2 Favorit system. The 48N6E missile was successfully test-fired the 12 February 1999. The possibility of using AD missiles with various effective ranges ensures the system's modular capability that makes it possible to set up layered air defense and non-strategic anti-missile defense systems. The S-400 missile has a maximum range of 400 km and can hit all air targets with high accuracy. The S-400 can also fire the 9M96E and 9M96E2, advanced Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) designed to engage a wide range of aerodynamic and ballistic targets in the most severe clutter and jamming environments with unprecedented effectiveness. These missiles are able to intercept targets at a maximum speed of Mach 15 (4,800-5000 m/s) and at a maximum altitude of 35,000 meters.
|The trailer of the system S-400 Triumph is towed by the Russian truck 6x6 BAZ-6402-015, but the S-400 can be also mounted to the truck Almaz 5P90SE or Almaz 5P90TMU. The S-400 trailer can be also towed by the MAZ-79100.|
|Command and control vehicles|
|The S-400 Triumph system command and control assets and AD missiles can cooperate with various automated control systems and radar facilities. Along with the new AD missiles the system can use the S-300 PMU AD missiles. The S-400 Triumph uses the new Engagement Radar System 92N2E Grave Stone carried by a new 8 x 8 MZKT-7930 vehicle, the battery acquisition radar 96L6 Cheese Board also carried by an 8x8 truck MZKT-7930. new 3D phased array acquisition radar is employed, the 91N6E (NATO Code Big Bird) derived from the 64N6E2, and the 40V6M/MD mast is an available option. |
The 55K6E command post is employed, carried by an 8 x 8 Ural 532301 truck. The command post is used to control air space surveillance data from each individual launcher vehicle. It controls and monitors long-range surveillance radar, tracks airborne threats, prioritizes the threats, and coordinates all batteries.
Optional acquisition radars cited for the S-400 include the 59N6 Protivnik GE and 67N6 Gamma DE in the L-band, but also the 1L119 Nebo SVU in the VHF band. The Nebo SVU has a claimed capability against stealth aircraft. In addition to further acquisition radar types, the S-400 has been trialed with the Topaz Kolchuga M, KRTP-91 Tamara / Trash Can, and 85V6 Orion / Vega emitter locating systems, the aim being to engage emitting targets without emitting from the acquisition radars, or if the acquisition radars have been jammed. In June 2008, the manufacturer disclosed the integration of the 1RL220VE, 1L222, and 86V6 Orion emitter locating systems with the S-400.
|Long-range surface-to-air missile systems||Four missiles in individual containers|
|Country users||Range missiles|
|Russia, China, Turkey, Algeria, Belarus, India||- 48N6E : 150 km; 48N6E2 : 200 km; |
- 9M96E : 40 km; 9M96E2 : 120 km;
- 9M83M/9M82M: 400 km
|Designer Country||Guidance System|
|Russia||Command and active radar|
|Deployment time||Radar and command station|
|To deploy the system from the traveling position to set system assets: 5 - 10 min |
At ready from deployed position : 3 min
|Surveillance radar 64N6 Tombstone 3D or 96L6E 3D System. Low altitude radar 76NG Clam Shell. Fire control Radar with the 36N85 Flap Lid. The Control System 86M6E and operation station 54K6E.|
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