The Scud SS-1 medium-range ballistic missiles are battlefield support weapons designed to strike at targets such as marshaling areas, major storage dumps, and airfields behind enemy lines. Warheads can be nuclear, chemical (persistent) or conventional HE. The original Scud-A version was thought to combine radio command of propulsion cut-off and gyro-stabilized guidance and to have not trajectory control after the motor cut-off. Missile programs of Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran have been reported to use the Russian base system Scud technology to produce battlefield missiles capable of reaching up to 1,500 km in range. Add this range with the potent ability to deliver a payload of explosive, chemical, biological or nuclear warheads.
SCUD-A SS-1b: also known as SS-1b. The SCUD-B replaced the JS-3-mounted SCUD-A, which had been in service since the mid-1950s. SCUD-B SS-1c: The longer range SCUD B, also known as SS-1c, can be distinguished by the one-meter greater length of the missile and the presence of two air bottles on the side of the superstructure in place of the single bottle used for the "SCUD A" missile. SCUD-C SS-1d: It had a longer range, though lower accuracy, than the SCUD B, and was deployed in smaller numbers. As of the late 1990s, some remained in service in Russian ground forces. SCUD-D SS-1e: featured an improved guidance system, possibly incorporating active radar terminal homing, and a wider choice of warheads than its predecessors. This missile has a range of about 700 km.
The `Scud B' missile is carried on an eight-wheeled MAZ 543 P TEL vehicle (9P117M), the missile is raised to the vertical position at the back of the TEL before launch. The MAZ 543 vehicle has a D-12 diesel engine rated at 525 hp, with four driven axles, and a separate 10 kW electric generator for missile operations. Two hydraulic pumps power the cradle that raises the missile to the vertical, which takes about 4 minutes. The Scud vehicle has an unrefuelled range of 650 km on hard roads and a maximum road speed of 55 km/h.
The missile's improved fuel mixture consisted of Unsymmetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine (UDMH) and Inhibited Red Furning Nitric Acid. The missile could also be fitted with an assortment of warheads including chemical, nuclear or conventional munitions. The warhead bay of the `Scud B' is 2.87 m long forming the nose section of the missile, and weighs 985 kg. It is believed that the first Russian design for `Scud B' was for a nuclear warhead with a yield of 50 kT, but this was later replaced with a selectable yield warhead covering from 5 to 70 kT. A diagram of a chemical warhead for the `Scud B' shows a nose-mounted fuze with a high-explosive bursting charge to open the warhead and allow the resulting air flow to disperse the 555 kg of viscous VX chemical agent into a dense aerosol cloud. Russian documents suggest that a number of different conventional high-explosive warheads were developed, including blast/fragmentation, earth penetration, fuel-air explosives, and submunitions. The HE blast fragmentation warhead contains 545 kg of HE. For the submunitions, there were again several options, including fragmentation; armor-piercing; runway penetrators; smoke; mines or incendiary. The submunitions warheads would all have been initiated by proximity fuzes, to create an airburst to deploy the submunition over a wide area. It is believed that 40 runway penetrator submunitions were carried, each penetrator weighing 12 kg and with 3 kg of HE Fragmentation, submunitions are believed to have numbered about 100 per warhead, each weighing 5 kg and containing 1.2 kg of HE, with a damaged radius between 160 and 250 m.
Guidance is by a rudimentary inertial system using three gyroscopes, which give control signals to four graphite vanes in the motor exhaust to adjust the flight path of the missile during the climb following launch. The control vanes are only operative for the period of motor burn, the first 60 seconds or so of flight.
The Scud has built-in test equipment, can aim the missile, and can fire autonomously if required. However, the target selection and firing is usually carried out from a separate command and control vehicle. A typical `Scud B' launch sequence takes about 1 hour. After launch, the TEL moves to a new position to avoid a counterattack and is reloaded from a towed resupply trailer. The TEL can carry three crew, but it is believed that five men are required in the launcher crew.
Type of missile
Medium-range ballistic missile
Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, RDC, Iraq, Iran, Kazakhstan, Libya, North Korea, South Yemen, Syria, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, and Yemen.
mobile truck transporter - erector - launcher a a a
nuclear, chemical, conventional HE, submunitions
Scud-a: 180 km Scud-b: 300 km Scud-c: 550 km Scud-d: 300 km
Scud-a: 3,000 m Scud-b: 450 m Scud-c: 700 m Scud-d: 50 m