Main Battle Tank - Russia
The T-62 Russian-made Main Battle Tank (MBT) is a further development of the main battle tank T-55. The T-62 was produced between 1961 and 1975. It became the standard main battle tank in the Russian armed forces and the Warsaw pact during the cold war, partly replacing the T-55, although that tank continued to be manufactured in Russia and in other countries in the world. The T-62 main battle tank was adopted for service with the Russian army in 1961. the T-62 is always in service with the Russian army but in an upgraded or modernized version. Many armed forces in the world use the T-62 as the standard main battle tank.
T-62 main variants:
- T-62 (1972): with 12.7 mm DShKM anti-aircraft machine gun mount over loader's position and some other detailed improvements.
- T-62 (1975): This was the final production model and was fitted with the KTD-1 laser range-finder over the 115 mm U-5TS (2A20) gun mantlet to increase first round hit probability.
- T-62D: T-62 fitted with the Drozd anti-tank missile defence system, passive armour protection, a V-55U engine and the R-173 communications system. Details of this first-generation Drozd system, now called Drozd-1 are given in the T-54/T-55 MBT entry.
- T-62D1: T-62 fitted with the Drozd anti-tank missile defence system, passive armour protection, a V-46-5M engine and the R-173 communications system
- T-62M: T-62 upgrade with the Sheksna (US designation AT-10) laser beam-riding missile system, passive armour protection, a V-55U engine and the R-173 communications system.
The 9K116-1 Sheksna fitted to the T-62M is virtually identical to the 9K116 Bastion system installed in the T-55M.
- T-62M1: T-62 upgrade with the Sheksna (US designation AT-10) laser beam-riding missile system, passive armour protection, a V-46-5M engine and the R-173 communications system
- T-62M1-1: T-62 upgrade without the Sheksna guided missile system, the passive armour protection, the V-46-5M engine and the R-173 communications system
- T-62M1-2-1: T-62M1 upgrade without the Sheksna guided missile system, passive armour protection in turret and belly only, and with the V-46-5M engine and the R-173 communications system
- T-62MV: T-62 upgrade with the Sheksna (US designation AT-10) laser-guided missile system, explosive reactive armour system, a V-55U engine and the R-173 communications system
- T-62MV: T-62 upgrade with the Sheksna (US designation AT-10) laser-guided missile system, explosive reactive armour system, a V-55U engine and the R-173 communications system.
- T-62MV-1: T-62 upgrade with the Sheksna (US designation AT-10) laser-guided missile system, explosive reactive armour protection, a V-46-5M engine and the R-173 communications system.
- T-62K: Command version of T-62 with TNA-3 land navigation system. This appeared in 1973 and consists of six components: gyroscopic compass, one or two compass indicators, latitude correction device, an odometer, power converter and a calculator.
- T-62 flame-thrower: A flame-thrower version of the T-62 is in service under the designation of TO-62. This has a flame gun mounted coaxially with the 115 mm gun with an effective range of 100 m.
- T-62 with Giat 120mm smoothbore gun: In mid-1986, Giat proposed the replacement of the Russian T-62's 115 mm U-5TS (2A20) smoothbore gun with the Giat 120 mm smoothbore gun. In this conversion the original elevation and traverse mechanism is retained and the existing 115 mm gun is replaced by the 120 mm smoothbore gun with loading from the right instead of the left, the existing recoil system also being modified. This remains at the concept stage.
- T-62 with armour package: Improved armour protection by the installation of two different configurations of passive armour and one configuration of explosive reactive armour. Special paint and screens to make it more difficult to detect in the visible, near and far infra-red bands.
- T-62M ARV: recovery vehicle. The modifications included the removal of the three-person turret which was replaced by the fixed upper half of a T-55 or T-55A tank turret which for this role had the 100 mm weapon removed and the turret facing the rear.
The T-62 main battle tank mounts a 115-mm two-axis stabilized smoothbore gun 2A20 (U5-TS). The stabilizer that equips the main gun is dubbed Meteor. It enables the crew to attack targets while the tank is moving. The main gun fires high-explosive projectiles OF-18, shaped-charge projectiles BK-4 (BK-4M) and armour-piercing projectiles BM-6. Their muzzle velocity is 1,615 m/s. The direct fire range is 4,000 m and the maximum firing range is 5,800 m. The main gun is laid at a target electro-hydraulically. The T-62 main battle tank carries an ammunition load of 40 fixed rounds. During loading, the gun elevation angle is 3° 30" and its rotation is impossible. The empty cases are disposed of through a hatch in the rear part of the turret by means of a spent cartridge case ejector. The rate of fire of the main gun is four rounds per minute. There is a 7.62-mm PKT machine gun mounted coaxially with the main ordnance. A 12.7 mm DShKM MG machine gun can be mounted on the commander's cupola for the latest version of the T-62 variants.
|Design and protection|
The T-62 main battle tank features a classical layout. The hull of the T-62 is divided into three compartments, driver's at the front, fighting in the centre and engine and transmission at the rear. The front armour plates have a considerable sloping angle: the glacis plate is sloped at 60°and the obliquity of the lower plate is 54°. Both are 100 mm thick.
|The T-62 main battle tank is powered by the V-55V 12-cylinder liquid-cooled V-engine delivering 580 hp at 2,000 rpm. The torsion bar suspension of T-62 consists of five dual rubber-tyred roadwheels with the drive sprocket at the rear and the idler at the front. There is a distinct gap between the third and fourth road wheel, and the fourth and fifth. A hydraulic shock-absorber is provided at the first and last roadwheel stations.|
|The driver observes the surroundings through two periscopes located in front of the hatch. At night, the left-hand periscope is replaced with the TVN-2 night-vision device. The T-62 is equipped with night observation/aiming devices, an NBC protection system, an automatic fire-fighting system, a smoke screen laying system (TDA), and deep wading equipment. The NBC protection system is initiated by sensors, which are sensitive to gamma radiation. The tank is provided with brackets for mounting a dozer blade or mine-clearing rollers. The T-62 can ford to a maximum depth of 1.4 m without preparation. It can also ford deep water when fitted with a snorkel. It takes up to 8 hours to prepare the tank for deep fording and two types of snorkel are available; a large diameter one for training and a thinner one for operational use which is normally carried in sections on the rear of the turret. A gunner's IR searchlight is mounted on the right above the main gun, and a smaller IR searchlight is mounted on the commander's cupola.|
|One 115 mm 2A20 smoothbore gun, one 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun and one 12.7 mm DShKM machine gun for self-protection.||Protection against small firing arms and shell splinters, 100 mm thick maximum|
|Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Belarus, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Libya, Russia, Syria, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen.||40,000 kg|
|Infrared sight, night vision, NBC protection system, day/night vision sight,||450 km|
|4||Length: 9.33 m; gun forward 6.63 m hull; Width: 3.3 m; Height: 2.39 m|
Pictures - Video