S-300V 9K81 Antey-300 SA-12 Gladiator
Long-Range surface-to-air defense missile system - Russia
The S-300V 9K81 (NATO code Sa-12 Gladiator/Giant) is a Russian-made air defense missile system mounted on a tracked armored vehicle. The S-300V is designed and manufactured by the Russian Defence Company Antey. The V suffix is used for Voyska (Ground forces). The S-300V air defense missile system is designed to provide air defense of task forces and key military and state installations against mass attacks by theatre and tactical ballistic missiles, aeroballistics and cruise missiles, strategic and tactical aircraft, as well as to engage loitering ECM aircraft and other airstrike assets. The S-300V system is a mobile multi-channel long-range surface-to-air missile system. It can provide effective theatre missiles and air defense. The system has high jamming immunity, and therefore is capable of engaging aerial targets in heavy ECM and fire counteraction, in any weather, by day and night.
S-300V 9K81 SA-12 Gladiator variants:
- S-300V2: block upgrade with improved ABM acquisition capability using paired optical cable networked 9S19M2 High Screen radars instead of the 9S15M Bill Board;
- S-300V3: block upgrade with extended engagement range missiles, with a claimed doubling of range performance against aerial targets;
- S-300V4: “deep modernization” with improvements over the S-300V3, providing “1.5 - 2.3 times the capability of earlier variants”.
|Missile launcher unit|
There are two variants of launcher unit, the 9A83 (SA-12a Gladiator) with four missiles container-launcher tubes and the 9A82 (SA-12b Giant) with two missiles container-launcher tubes. These tubes are raised to the vertical for missile launch and are carried horizontally for travel.
On the 9A83-1 launcher unit, the engagement radar is mounted at the front of the launcher on a scissors-type mount which gives it a full 360º coverage in azimuth as well as full hemispheric coverage in elevation.
On the 9A82 launcher unit, the radar is mounted in a semi-fixed position over the cab, giving 90º coverage to either side in azimuth or 110º coverage in elevation. The difference in the radar locations is because the 9A83-1 TELAR has a secondary anti-aircraft role and therefore needs a mast-mounted antenna to engage low-flying targets in any direction.
There are two variants of loader launcher unit, the 9A84 with four missiles 9M83 container-launcher tubes and the 9A85 with two missiles 9M82 container-launcher tubes. For these vehicles, the radar installation is replaced by a hydraulically-operated crane assembly for loading/unloading the missile containers. The loader-launcher has the primary role of replenishing the missile on the launcher/radar unit when necessary, but it can erect the missile tubes for its own launch sequence if the primary launcher load has been exhausted and there is insufficient time for reloading. However, it requires a launcher/radar unit to provide radar assistance for the engagement.
The two-stage 9M83 “Type I Missile” / SA-12A Gladiator and 9M82 “Type II Missile” / SA-12B Giant are the guided missiles used by the S-300V / SA-12 system. The missiles are largely common in design, the principal distinctions being different first-stage boosters, different control surface arrangements, and numerous detail differences. The 9M82 and 9M83 were developed by the Novator NPO design bureau and are designed for maximum commonality. The missiles are carried in recyclable container-launcher tubes that have to be raised to the vertical before a launch can occur. The missile is then ejected from the container to a height of about 50 m and, once clear, ignites its propulsion system.
The 9M83 missile is designed to counter weapons employed to deliver dense attacks. It is highly effective against any type of existing and prospective aircraft at ranges of up to 75 km, against SRAM-type aero-ballistic missiles, tactical ballistic missiles of the Lance type at ranges of up to 40 km, and against nap-of-the-earth cruise missiles. And neither an anti-missile evasive maneuver performed by the target nor electronic countermeasures can prevent the 9M83 AD missile from performing its mission.
The 9M82 missile is the most powerful weapon, featuring much higher speed characteristics and capable of defeating all of the above-mentioned targets. However, it is designed primarily for the engagement of theater missiles at ranges of up to 35 to 40 km and flying at a speed of up to 3,000 m/s, as well as other high-speed small targets, high-flying (up to 30 km) targets, jammers, and AWACS and HAWKEYE early warning aircraft at ranges of up to 100 km.
|All range of S-300V 9K81 defense system vehicles is mounted on the full-tracked MT-T tractor chassis armored vehicle featuring high maneuverability and cross-country capability. They are also provided with stand-alone power supply systems and radio communication systems. The MT-T full-tracked vehicle series was originally designed and built at the Kharkov Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau in Ukraine. Full automation of deployment and out-of-action equipment operations allows the system to be operational within 5 minutes of arriving at a launch site and ready to travel 5 minutes after shutting down its subsystems.|
|Launcher Unit and Command and Control Vehicles|
|Each SAM system typically includes: |
- 9S32-1 multi-channel missile guidance radar
- 9A83 SA-12a Gladiator launcher unit with four 9M83 missiles in transport-launch containers
- 9A82 SA-12b Giant launcher unit with two 9M82 missiles
- 9A84 loader/launcher with four 9M83 missile
- 9A85 loader/launcher with two missiles 9M82.
The target detection and designation unit includes:
- 9S457-1 Command Post
- 9S15MV all-round surveillance radar
- 9S19M2 sector-surveillance radar
|A typical S-300V air defense missile structure includes target and designation unit, up to four launcher units and missile support and technical maintenance assets. A typical ADM (Air Defence Missile) system, consisting of four 9A83-1 (SA-12a Gladiator) launchers, four 9A84 loader/launchers, two 9A82 (SA-12b Giant) launchers and two 9A85 loader/launchers, has ammunition allowance of 32 9M83 missiles and eight 9M82 SAMs. The high performance characteristics of the missiles are also attributable to their launchers. Mounted on a tracked chassis, they feature high cross-country capacity and can move within troop battle formations. The launcher can be deployed and made operational within only five minutes of arriving at a launch site. The launcher can stop at any place and fire missiles from an unprepared launch site. All operations to prepare missile launches and launch the missiles are automated and, therefore, do not require highly skilled personnel to do the job. Preparation of a missile for firing, where its onboard equipment is checked for serviceability and correct functioning, is performed by the launcher within 15 seconds.|
|Surface-to-air defense missile system||- 9M83: 2,500 kg |
- 9M82: 4,600 kg
|- Four missiles 9M83 for 9A83 launcher unit |
- Two missiles 9M82 for 9A82 launcher unit
|- 9M83: 7.5 m |
- 9M82: 10 m
|Country users||Range Missiles|
|Belarus, Russia and Ukraine||- 9M83: 6,000 to 75,000 m |
- 9M82: 13,000 to 100,000 m
|Warhead missile||Guidance System|
|HE focused fragmentation with selectable in-flight proximity fuzing capability||Inertial with semi-active radar terminal homing seeker|
|150 kg HE High Explosive||- 9S32-1 multi-channel missile guidance radar |
- 9S15MV all-round surveillance radar
- 9S19M2 sector-surveillance radar
|9A83 SA-12a Gladiator launcher unit with radar |
|9A82 SA-12b Giant launcher unit with radar |
Launcher unit with two 9M82 missiles container-launcher tubes and radar mounted over the cabin crew.
|9A84 loader/launcher unit|
|9A85 loader/launcher unit|
Launcher/loader unit with two 9M82 missiles container-launcher tubes with crane and no radar.
|9S32-1 multi-channel missile guidance radar|
Missile guidance station unit
|9S457-1 Command Post|
This tracked vehicle provides the command and control facilities for the brigade.
|9S15MV all-round surveillance radar (NATO Code "Bill Board")|
This vehicle provides long-range early warning and target acquisition data on up to 200 targets to the CP. For traveling, it folds down over the back of the vehicle.
|9S19M2 sector-surveillance radar (NATO Code "High Screen")|
Sector-surveillance radar. This is needed for the brigade's anti-missile role.
Pictures - Video