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PT-91 Twardy main battle tank
 
 
 
PT-91 Twardy main battle tank technical data sheet specifications description information pictures photos images video identification intelligence Poland Polish army industry military technology
 
Description

The PT-91 MBT, which is also referred as the Twardy (Hard), is a further development by the Zaklady Mechaniczne Bumar-Labedy SA of the Russian-made T-72M1 which has been produced under license in Poland for many years. The first prototype of the PT-91 was completed late in 1992 and underwent trials with the Polish Army during the same year. First PT-91 enters in service with the Polish army in 1995. In April 2003, a contract was signed between representatives of Malaysian Government and Polish Defense Company BUMAR (Now Polish Defense Holding), for the delivery of 48 MBTs PT-91M, 6 armoured recovery vehicles WZT-4, 5 armoured bridge layer PMC-90 - LEGUAN and 3 armoured engineer vehicles MID-M, initiating an active cooperation with Malaysian defence industry and Malaysian Armed Forces. First PT-91 for Malaysia has been manufactured in winter 2005, and passed hard tests in Polish ranges. During these tests, some representatives of Malaysian army supervised the testing to validate the contract. In August 2005 after small modification, which is the results of analyses from the test, tank was transported to Malaysia for the first public presentation of PT-91M which takes place 31 August 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, during the big military parade on Malaysia Independence Day. Tank open, column of Malaysian Armour Corps, and was represented in colors of 11th Regiment, 4th Mechanized Brigade. The same tank which was presented on the parade has passed very hard tests in extreme terrain and climate conditions since September until December 2005. The PT-91 is still in service in the Polish Army. The PT-91 was proposed to the Peruvian army to replace old Russian-made T-55, but was not selected.

 
Variants
- PT-91A: PT-91 motorised with PZL-Wola S-1000 1,000 hp engine with mechanic transmission and number of other minor changes.
- PT-91Z Hardy:
Modernized version with SAGEM Savan-15 fire control system.
- PT-91M:
export variant for Malaysia with SAGEM Savan-15 fire control system, PZL-Wola S-1000R 1,000 hp powerpack with Renk/SESM ESM-350M automatic transmission bringing its top speed to 70 km/h, and a new communications system. Main armament consists a "Konštrukta defence a.s." design 2A46MS 125 mm tank gun made by ZTS - Špeciál a.s., a 7.62 mm FN MAG coaxial machine gun and a 12.7 mm FN Browning M2 HB AA machine gun. This variant is also equipped with Sagem VIGY 15 gyro-stabilised panoramic sight optronics, a SIGMA 30 laser gyro inertial navigation system, EADS EPS72 turret stabilisation system, a PCO SSP-1 Obra-3 laser-warning system, integrated with ZM Dezamet 902A 81 mm smoke grenade launchers, CBRN warning system Pimco CHERDES II, communication systems: Thales TRC9310-3 F@stnet, Thales TRC3630-3, Thales SOTAS, 3rd gen. ERAWA 2 Explosive Reactive Armour, and Type 570P Diehl Remscheid GmbH tank tracks.
- PT-91EX: Very similar to PT-91M, offered for export to other countries.
- PT-91P: Offer for the Peruvian army, equipped with ewest PCO Drawa-TG fire control system with a thermal sight and modern communication system (Radmor RRC9310 radio, WB Electronics Fonet-IP communication system and Teldat battlefield management system).
 
Technical Data
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Armament
The Twardy PT-91 is armed with the same 125-mm smoothbore gun 2A46 used in the T-72, fitted with an automatic reloading mechanism which allowed for removing the gun's loader as a crew member, and gave a rate of fire of 8 to 10 rounds per minute. Additional armament includes a 7.62-mm coaxial PKT and 12.7mm anti-aircraft NSVT machine guns. The PT-91 has a thermo smoke device generating smoke screens from fuel and 24 grenade launchers fitted with smoke or anti-personnel fragmentation grenades. These are operated in conjunction with the OBRA laser warning system. The PT-91 Twardy has new gun stabilization system and new fire control system.
Design and protection
The layout of the PT-91 is very similar to the Russian-made T-72 with driver's at the front, fighting compartment with gunner and commander in the centre and the power pack at the rear. The PT-91 is fitted with the Polish-developed explosive reactive armour Type ERAWA-1 (with one layer of explosive inside) and ERAWA-2 (with two layers of explosive inside) to the hull and turret. The armour package provides a protection against firing of small arms 7.62, 12.7 and 14.5 mm caliber as well as cannon fragments between 20 and 30 mm.
Propulsion
The PT-91 is powered by a Type S-12U four-stroke, multifuel, supercharged, water-cooled diesel developing 850 hp at 2,300 rpm coupled to a manual transmission with 7 forward and 1 reverse gears. The torsion bar suspension of PT-91 each side consists of six roadwheels with the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and three return rollers supporting the inside of the track only. The upper part of the suspension is protected by steel armour plates with the forward part covered by ERAWA-1 explosive reactive armour blocks. The PT-91 can run at a maximum road speed of 60 km/h with a maximum road range of 650 km. The PT-91 is able to negotiate gradient up to 60% and side slope to 50%. The tank can climb 0.85 metres high vertical obstacles, and cross 2.8 metres wide trenches.
Accessories
The PT-91 is fitted with a new fire control system developed in Slovakia. It has an electronic information block showing the tank's technical condition. Four laser warning antennas are fitted around the turret which alerts the crew if it is being targeted by a laser range-finder or designator. This system is known as the OBRA laser warning system and works in automatic and manual modes. The OBRA laser warning system was developed and produced by the Polish company PCO. The engine and crew compartment have been fitted with a more modern fire detection and suppression system. A snorkel is mounted to the right side of the turret which can be used to cross a river up to 5 m deep. Standard equipment of the PT-91 includes NBC protection system and night vision.
 
Specifications
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Armament
One 125 mm, one PKT 7.62mm coaxial machine gun, one NSV 12.7 mm anti-aicraft machine gun.
Country users
Poland, Malaysia.
Designer Country
Poland
Accessories
Fire control system, NBC protection system, night vision equipment.
Crew
3 soldiers
Armor
Steel armour and Polish-made ERA reactive armour ERAWA-1 and ERAWA-2.
Weight vehicle
45,300 kg
Speed vehicle
60 km/h maximum road speed
Range
650 km
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Dimensions
Length: 9.67 m; Width: 3.59 m; Height: 2.19 m
 
Details View
PT-91 Twardy main battle tank technical data sheet specifications description information pictures photos images video identification intelligence Poland Polish army industry military technology
 
PT-91 Twardy main battle tank technical data sheet specifications description information pictures photos images video identification intelligence Poland Polish army industry military technology
PT-91 Twardy main battle tank technical data sheet specifications description information pictures photos images video identification intelligence Poland Polish army industry military technology
   
PT-91 Twardy main battle tank technical data sheet specifications description information pictures photos images video identification intelligence Poland Polish army industry military technology
PT-91 Twardy main battle tank technical data sheet specifications description information pictures photos images video identification intelligence Poland Polish army industry military technology
 
Pictures - Video
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